آوریل 12, 2022
  • توسط Dr.Sharifnezhad

Overall, the report notes that the entire region will benefit from RCEP`s tariff concessions, with most of these gains resulting from diverted trade by non-members. The TPP explicitly excludes the tobacco industry from the ISDS process. [134] The split was in response to concerns about ISDS cases against anti-smoking laws, including Philip Morris v. Uruguay. [135] The ISDS tobacco exemption is a first for an international trade agreement. [134] The ECIPE stated in 2014 that the TPP “will be the first `competing` economic integration significant enough to have a significant negative impact on Europe. In the long run, the negative effects will come from dynamic effects, for example, on. B investment, productivity and competitiveness. [191] Pascal Lamy called the TPP “the last of the great old-fashioned trade agreements.” [191]:2 In 2012, critics such as Public Citizen`s Global Trade Watch, a consumer protection group, called for more open negotiations on the deal. U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter said the adoption of the TPP was as valuable to the U.S. as the creation of another aircraft carrier. [23] President Obama argued, “If we don`t pass this agreement — if America doesn`t write these rules — then countries like China will.” [188] According to the Congressional Research Service, “many Asian politicians may or may not interpret a failure of the TPP in the United States as a symbol of the decline in U.S.

interest in the region and the inability to maintain its leadership. The failure to conclude the TPP could indeed allow China to shape regional trade and diplomatic rules through its own trade and investment initiatives, and potentially create regional rules and norms that are less beneficial to US interests. [21] Michael J. Green and Matthew P. Goodman argue that “history will be irreconcilable if the TPP fails. If Congress rejects the TPP, trying to broker a similar deal in Asia would revive U.S. demands — and in the meantime would likely give a boost to alternative deals like RCEP that exclude the U.S. The momentum behind the US-led international order would turn into momentum against it. Future generations of historians will take note of American leadership at this time. [23] Dan Ikenson, director of Herbert A.

Cato`s Stiefel Center for Trade Policy Studies argued in July 2016 that “Congress` failure to ratify the Trans-Pacific Partnership this year would do more to undermine U.S. regional and global interests than anything China can do.” [181] Stephan M. Walt, a professor of international relations at Harvard University, wrote that after the Trump administration abandoned the TPP, he described the TPP as “a key institution that would have linked a number of Asian countries more closely to the United States.” [186] A product manufactured in Indonesia containing, for example, Australian parts could be subject to tariffs elsewhere in the ASEAN Free Trade Area. The Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA) is a regional preferential agreement formerly known as the Bangkok Agreement. APTA aims to promote the economic development of its members by adopting mutually beneficial trade liberalization measures that contribute to the expansion of regional trade and economic cooperation. Over time, it has focused from the initial negotiations on tariff concessions for trade in goods to the current negotiations on investment liberalization, trade in services and trade facilitation. In addition, it is constantly working to improve and modernise its rules of origin for trade in goods. In January 2016, the National Association of Manufacturers announced its support for the TPP, stating, “Without such an agreement, the United States would cede economic leadership to other world powers and let them set the rules for economic engagement in the region.” [182] “The economic benefits of the agreement may be marginal for Southeast Asia, but there are interesting trade and tariff dynamics that can be seen for Northeast Asia,” said Nick Marro of the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Although the TPP was not adopted, the agreement had already introduced forms of regulatory cooperation for agriculture that go beyond those established in the WTO. [152] This means that the regulators of the various TPP signatories have engaged with each other and built trust. [152] Chad P. Bown, a senior researcher at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, argues that this regulatory collaboration meant that the U.S.

poultry industry was not as hard hit by the 2015 avian flu outbreak, as regulators in the TPP countries cooperated and continued to accept U.S. poultry exports. [152] According to analyst and economist B.R. Williams, the United States plays a major role in reducing trade barriers and increasing U.S. investment. Williams explains that the U.S. aims to create a “broader platform for trade liberalization, especially throughout the Asia-Pacific region.” [175] Scientists C. Li and J. Whalley are studying a numerical approach to explain the liberating effects of the TPP. Li and Whalley use a quantitative equilibrium simulation to study the impact of the TPP on trade liberalization and new markets. [176] A 2016 study by political scientists Todd Allee and Andrew Lugg of the University of Maryland found that of the 74 previous trade agreements signed by TPP members since 1995, the TPP text is most similar to the previous U.S. trade agreement.

[۸۵] A 2017 study found that the TPP has performed well compared to other trade agreements in terms of a government`s ability to legislate and freely enforce regulations in certain areas of public policy. [86] In June 2015, U.S. Senator Rand Paul, a Republican from Kentucky, rejected the bill in order to expedite Congressional ratification of the TPP based on the secrecy of the trade deal. [209] The U.S. International Trade Commission, the Peterson Institute for International Economics, the World Bank, and the Office of the Chief Economist of Global Affairs Canada noted that the final agreement, if ratified, would result in positive net economic outcomes for all signatories, while a heterodox analysis by two Economists at Tufts University found that the agreement would affect the signatories. [153] [13] [154] [16] Donald Trump criticized the TPP agreement as too long and complicated, saying, “It`s 5,600 pages long, so complex that no one has read it.” [197] Senator Bernie Sanders asserted that “the TPP is much more than a `free trade agreement.`” [198] In a speech on the 2016 presidential campaign, Republican Party candidate Donald Trump promised to withdraw the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership if elected. He argued that the deal would “undermine” the United States. The economy and its independence. [65] [66] On November 21, 2016, in a video message, Trump outlined an economic strategy that “puts America first” and said he would “bring back fair bilateral trade agreements that would bring jobs and industry back to American shores.” As part of that plan, Trump confirmed his intention for the United States to withdraw from the Trans-Pacific Partnership on his first day in office. [67] [68] [69] McConnell reiterated that the TPP would not be considered at the Lame Duck session of Congress before Trump`s inauguration. [70] The original agreement was ratified by Japan and New Zealand.

Twelve countries participated in the TPP negotiations: the four parties to the 2005 Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement and eight other countries […].